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Guide to Citing Sources

CONTENTS:

  1. Citation styles
    1. APA - American Psychological Association
    2. MLA - Modern Language Association
    3. Genealogical
    4. Legal
    5. Scientific - CSE, ACS, & AIP
    6. IEEE Society Style & Chicago Manual of Style
  2. Citation makers
    1. EasyBib (free for MLA style)
    2. KnightCite (free for MLA, APA, Chicago styles)

This page provides links to style sheets for citation styles.

  • Use the citation style recommended by your professor. If no style is recommended, choose one style and stick to it. Consistency is key, so don't mix styles in a bibliography.
  • For information on "why to cite" and "why a specific style", see Why Cite.


  1. Citation Styles

    1. American Psychological Association (APA) style

      The sources listed below provide assistance and examples of the APA style.

      1. Best STARTING POINT on the Web for citation examples:
        Using APA Format (by Purdue University's Writing Lab).
        https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
        Includes both textual and electronic examples.
      2. APA Guide (in print in the Library):
        Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, D.C.:
        American Psychological Association, 2010.
        In print in Mundt Library, location is -- REFERENCE : BF76.7 .P83
      3. APA Website: APA Style Help, by APA. http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx
        APA provides provides a free tutorial "The Basics of APA Style" and an FAQ. The FAQ includes how to site websites.
      4. Additional citation examples if needed:
        1. APA Documentation Style, University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center.
          http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocAPA.html
          Excellent source of documentation guidelines for APA. Link to "Reference List" for the stylesheet that will help you create your bibliography or to "Parenthetical citations" to see how to cite within the body of your paper.

        2. APA Style Essentials (by Douglas Degelman, Ph.D., and Martin Lorenzo Harris, Ph.D. Vanguard University of Southern California).
          http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.aspx?doc_id=796
          Provides quick view of document formatting using APA style.

        3. APA (Style) Lite for College Papers, by Dr. Abel Scribe.
          http://www.docstyles.com/library/apalite.pdf
          The "author" is a pseudonym for a group of graduates students who, in the 1990s authored citation software called aScribe and whose products evolved into the citation guides of docstyles.com. APA Lite is based on the Crib Sheet originally written by Russ Dewey (emeritus professor at Georgia Southern University, and revised and updated by Bill Scott of the College of Wooster and Doc Scribe).

        4. Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Documentation Guidelines, Duke University Libraries.
          http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/citing.htm
          Source of documentation guidelines for APA (and also MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles).



    2. Modern Language Association (MLA) style

      The following sources provide assistance and examples of the MLA style.

      1. Best STARTING POINT on the Web for citation examples:
        Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format, by Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
        http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
        Provides examples for citing print, electronic and other types of sources, based on the most recent
        (7th edition) of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
      2. MLA Guides (in print in library):

        1. Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. New York : Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
          In Mundt Library with call number: REFERENCE LB2369 .G53
          This handbook is for high school and undergraduate students.

        2. Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing, 3rd ed. New York : Modern Language Association of America, 2008.
          In Mundt Library with call number: REFERENCE PN147 .G444
          This manual is for graduate students, scholars, and professional writers.

      3. Additional citation examples on the web, if needed:

        1. Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Documentation Guidelines, Duke University Libraries.
          http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/citing.htm
          Source of documentation guidelines for APA (and also MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles).

        2. MLA Style Guide, 7th ed. , by the Library, University of Southern Mississippi.
          http://www.lib.usm.edu/help/style_guides/mla.html

        3. Citing Government Information Sources Using MLA Style , by University of Nevada, Reno Libraries.
          http://www.knowledgecenter.unr.edu/help/manage/government_cite.aspx Examples show how to cite laws and government documents.



    3. Citing Genealogical Sources

      Web site that provides assistance and examples for citing genealogical sources:

      1. ProGenealogists Common Internet and Electronic Citations - cut and paste stylesheets for census images and indexes and other genealogical material in Ancestry.com, FamilySearch, Ancestral File online database, International Genealogical Index, Ellis Island Passenger List database, etc.



    4. Citing Legal Sources

      Web sites which provide assistance and examples of legal citation:

      1. Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (2010 ed.), by Peter W. Martin (Cornell Law School)
        http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/
        is an introduction to legal citation that includes examples for citing Cases, Constitutions and Statutes, Regulations, Other Administrative Agency Material, Arbitrations, Rules of Evidence or Procedure, Books Written By Individual Authors, Works or Services Prepared by Publishers or Institutions, Articles and Other Law Journal Writing , and Documents From Earlier Stages of a Case.

      2. For help interpreting legal citations, see
        Reading Legal Citations (Boston College Law Library)
        http://www.bc.edu/schools/law/library/research/researchguides/

      3. Uncle Sam - Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications
        (by Government Publications Department, Regional Depository Library, The University of Memphis)
        http://www.memphis.edu/govpub/citweb.php
        Provides examples "based on the Chicago/Turabian standard bibliographic style and not reference-list form. You may need to modify the citation to conform to the manual/form you are required to use."

      4. MLA Style Guide, by the Library, University of Southern Mississippi.
        http://www.lib.usm.edu/help/style_guides/mla.html
        Examples for many types of documents, including citing legislation and bills.

      5. Citing Government Information Sources Using MLA Style, by University of Nevada, Reno Libraries.
        http://www.knowledgecenter.unr.edu/help/manage/government_cite.aspx
        Examples show how to cite laws and government documents.



    5. Scientific: Biology , Chemistry, & Physics Styles

      1. Biology: CBE/CSE
        The documentation style common in biology has been that of the CBE, the Council of Biology Editors. However, the Council of Biology Editors is now known as the Council of Science Editors (CSE). See the following sources for information about the CSE style.

        1. Council of Science Editors. 2006. Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. Location in Library: Reference T 11 .S386 2006
          Very little style information is provided on the web by CSE.

        2. The link below provides sample citations to help you with the CSE style (7th edition).
          CSE Citation Style Examples, Karl E. Mundt Library, Dakota State University
          http://dsu.libguides.com/cse

        3. For more sample citations, see Penn State University's CSE Quick Citation Guide .
      2. Chemistry: ACS
        Chemists typically use the documentation style of the American Chemical Society (ACS). The following sources provide help and examples.

        1. Coghill AM & Garson. LR The ACS style guide: A manual for authors and editors, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 2006.
          Location in Library: Reference QD8.5 .A25

        2. ACS Style Guide, Williams College Libraries
          http://library.williams.edu/citing/styles/acs.php
          Brief guide.

        3. A Quick Guide to Citing Using the ACS Style Guide, 3rd edition. Penn State University Libraries
          http://www.libraries.psu.edu/content/dam/psul/up/pams/documents/QuickGuideACS.pdf
          Brief guide.

      3. Physics: AIP
        The AIP (American Institute of Physics) documentation style is commonly used in physics. The following sources will help you use this style.
        1. American Institute of Physics. AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
          http://www.aip.org/pubservs/style/4thed/toc.html



    6. IEEE Style & Chicago Manual of Style

      1. IEEE Style Manual
        - provides editorial guidelines for IEEE Transactions, IEEE Journals, and IEEE Letters.
        • For additional help, see IEEE Style, created by Murdoch University.

      2. IEEE Computer Society Style Guide for References. "This style guide defines and explains unique IEEE Computer Society usages, particularly where they differ from other usages."
        For additional IEEE Computer Society style advice, see:
        • IEEE Computer Society Style Guide: Special Sections) - links to sections of the manual that provide help with different style issues such as how to include program code and mathematical expressions, when and how to use abbreviations, punctuation, and more.
      3. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
        Available on first floor of Library: REFERENCE Z253 .U69 2003
        For citation examples,

  2. Citation Makers

    Fill-in a form about a source (article, book, etc.) on these citation maker sites, and these tools will create a citation.
    Verify that the citation has been correctly formatted by the citation maker by comparing the citation to examples found in citation style sites above.

    1. EasyBib - Provides automated forms to create citations for various types of sources in MLA style.
    2. KnightCite - Provides automated forms to create citations for various types of sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.

Last Updated: 8/15/14